Research
Theme 2
www.darwincenter.nl
Program 2010

Validation of palaeotemperature proxies in marine and lacustrine systems
Program coordinator(s): Prof. dr. J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Theme(s): 2
Funding date: 13-apr-05

Abstract
Understanding and predicting climate variability is a major scientific challenge, particularly with regard to climate-induced environmental change and its impact on human society. Models to predict climate are complex, and based in part on what we know of past climate variability, both from the recent instrumental and historical records as well as from geological climate archives such aslacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and tree rings. However, the study of palaeoclimates is limited in part by our ability to accurately determine temperature variability, especially for continental climate. Unfortunately, many of the available biotic and abiotic temperature proxies are also affected by precipitation rate, evaporation rate, atmospheric CO2 concentrations and changes in source composition. In this project we will develop proxies for surface temperature of lakes based on (i) fossilized crenarchaeotal membrane lipids and (ii) the fossils of chironomids and cladocera and the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of their chitin. These proxies will be validated with appropriate field and laboratory studies. Since essentially nothing is known on the ecology of pelagic freshwater crenarchaeota, this will be studied by appropriate molecular ecological methods. These results will guide the interpretation of the crenarchaeotal temperature proxy. The temperature proxies will be compared to instrumental measurements for the past 150 years using varved sediments and will be compared to each other for records going back to the last Glacial. It is foreseen that this project will result in new and well-validated temperature proxies for lakes. With these proxies a better understanding of the continental climate will be obtained.

This program contains the following projects:
2011: Freshwater crenarchaeotal membrane lipids as proxy for lake surface temperatures
2012: Ecology of Nonthermophilic Freshwater Crenarchaeota
2013: Chitinous aquatic organisms as proxies for lake surface temperature

Publications
van Hardenbroek, M., Heiri, O., Grey, J., Bodelier, P.L.E., Verbruggen, F., Lotter, A.F. (2009). Fossil chironomid δ13C as a proxy for past methanogenic contribution to benthic food webs in lakes? . Journal of Paleolimnology1-11.
Darwin Center authors: Bodelier P. L. E., van Hardenbroek M. R., Lotter A. F., Verbruggen F.

Elisabeth W. Vissers, Paul L.E. Bodelier, Gerard Muyzer, Hendrikus J. Laanbroek (2009). A nested PCR approach for improved recovery of archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments from freshwater samples. FEMS microbiology letters298/2: 193-198.
Darwin Center authors: Bodelier P. L. E., Laanbroek H. J., Vissers E. W.

Blaga, C.I., Reichart, G.J., Heiri, O., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2009). Tetraether membrane lipid distributions in water-column particulate matter and sediments: a study of 47 European lakes along a north-south transect.. Journal of Paleolimnology41: 523-540.
Darwin Center authors: Blaga C. I., Heiri O. M., Reichart G. J., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Blaga, C.I. (2010). Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether membrane lipids in lacustrine environments and their application as proxies for paleoclimate reconstructions..
Darwin Center authors: Blaga C. I.

Cornelia I. Blaga, Gert-Jan Reichart, Stefan Schouten, André F. Lotter, Josef P. Werne, Sarian Kosten, Nestor Mazzeo, Gissell Lacerot, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté (2010). Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in lake sediments: Can they be used as temperature and pH proxies?. Organic Geochemistry41: 1225-1234.
Darwin Center authors: Blaga C. I., Lotter A. F., Reichart G. J., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

F. Verbruggen, O. Heiri, G.-J. Reichart, A.F. Lotter (2010). Chironomid d18O as a proxy for past lake water d18O: a Lateglacial record from Rotsee (Switzerland). Quaternary Science Reviews29: 2271-2279.
Darwin Center authors: Heiri O. M., Lotter A. F., Reichart G. J., Verbruggen F.

F. Verbruggen, O. Heiri, G.-J. Reichart, J. W. De Leeuw, K. G. J. Nierop and A. F. Lotter (2010). Effects of chemical pretreatments on δ18O measurements, chemical composition, and morphology of chironomid head capsules. Journal of Paleolimnology43: 857-872.
Darwin Center authors: Heiri O. M., Lotter A. F., Reichart G. J., Verbruggen F.

Frederike Verbruggen (2010). Stable oxygen isotopes in fossil chironomids: development of a new proxy for past climate change.
Darwin Center authors: Verbruggen F.

Verbruggen, F, Heiri, O, Meriläinen JJ, Lotter AF (2011). Subfossil chironomid assemblages in deep, stratified European lakes: Relationships with temperature, trophic state and oxygen. Freshwater Biology56: 407-423.
Darwin Center authors: Heiri O. M., Lotter A. F., Verbruggen F.

Cornelia I. Blaga, Gert-Jan Reichart, Elisabeth W. Vissers, André F. Lotter, Flavio S. Anselmetti, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté (2011). Seasonal changes in glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether concentrations and fluxes in a perialpine lake: Implications for the use of the TEX86 and BIT proxies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica ActaVolume 75, Issue 21: 6416-6428.
Darwin Center authors: Blaga C. I., Lotter A. F., Reichart G. J., Sinninghe Damsté J. S., Vissers E. W.

Liesbeth Vissers (2012). Spatial and temporal dynamics of thaumarchaeota.
Darwin Center authors: Vissers E. W.