Programs and projects
Program 1110

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation: Impact on present and past oceanic nitrogen cycling
Program coordinator(s): Prof. dr. ir. M. S. M. Jetten
Theme(s): 1 , 2
Funding date: 10-jul-07

The availability of the nutrients nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) limits the production of phytoplankton in the ocean surface waters. Consequently, the marine nitrogen cycle has a strong link with the marine carbon cycle and climate change. Recent studies have shown that anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a major sink in anoxic basins, oxygen minimum zones and marine sediments contributing 50% or more to the nitrogen loss in the oceans. We recently enriched and purified the dominant marine anammox bacteria, Scalindua marina, and sequenced its genome, giving us the unique opportunity to study the geobiology of these bacteria. Anammox bacteria possess chemotaxonomically unique “ladderane'' lipids and hopanoids, that are excellent biomarkers to assess past and present anammox activity, because the ladderane lipids composition is a function of the environmental conditions experienced by the bacteria. Building on our successful cooperation, we would like to combine the efforts of both microbiologists and geologists with aim to develop a proxy for past anammox activity on basis of the unique ladderane molecules and to understand the role of anammox bacteria in the oceanic N cycle in the present DARWIN proposal.

This program contains the following projects:
1111: Elucidating the metabolism of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria to understand their role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen
1112: Ladderane and other lipids of anammox bacteria as tracers for present-day and past oceanic nitrogen cycling

Rush D., Jaeschke A., Hopmans E.C., Geenevasen J.A.J., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J.S (2011). Short chained ladderanes in sediments: oxic biodegradation products of anammox lipids. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta75: 1662-1671.
Darwin Center authors: Hopmans E. C., Rush D., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Kartal, B., Maalcke, W.J., De Almeida, N.M., Cirpus, I., Gloerich, J., Geerts, W., Op Den Camp, H.J.M., Harhangi, H.R., Janssen-Megens, E.M., Francoijs, K.-J., Stunnenberg, H.G., Keltjens, J.T., Jetten, M.S.M., Strous, M. (2011). Molecular mechanism of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. NatureVolume 479, Issue 7371: 127-130.
Darwin Center authors: op den Camp H. J. M., Jetten M. S. M., Keltjens J. T. M., Maalcke W. J.

De Almeida, N.M. , Maalcke, W.J., Keltjens, J.T., Jetten, M.S.M., Kartal, B (2011). Proteins and protein complexes involved in the biochemical reactions of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria . Biochemical Society TransactionsVolume 39, Issue 1: 303-308.
Darwin Center authors: Jetten M. S. M., Keltjens J. T. M., Maalcke W. J.

D.J. Rush (2012). Ladderanes as tracers of present and past anaerobic ammonium oxidation.
Darwin Center authors: Rush D.

Rush D., Hopmans E.C., Wakeham S.G., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J.S. (2012). Occurrence and distribution of ladderane oxidation products in different oceanic regimes.. Biogeosciences9: 2407-2418.
Darwin Center authors: Hopmans E. C., Rush D., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Rush D., Wakeham S.G., Hopmans E.C., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J.S. (2012). Biomarker evidence for anammox in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Organic Geochemistry53: 80-87.
Darwin Center authors: Hopmans E. C., Rush D., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Wakeham, S.G., Turich, C., Schubotz, F., Podlaska, A., Li, X.N., Varela, R., Astor, Y., Saenz, J.P., Rush, D., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Summons, R.E., Scranton, M.I., Taylor, G.T., Hinrichs, K.U. (2012). Biomarkers, chemistry and microbiology show chemoautotrophy in a multilayer chemocline in the Cariaco Basin. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers63: 133-156.
Darwin Center authors: Rush D., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Wouter Maalcke (2012). Multiheme protein complexes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.
Darwin Center authors: Maalcke W. J.

Wouter J. Maalcke, Andreas Dietl, Sophie J. Marritt, Julea N. Butt, Mike S. M. Jetten, Jan T. Keltjens, Thomas R. M. Barends, Boran Kartal (2013). Structural basis of biological NO generation by octaheme oxidoreductases. The journal of biological chemistry
Darwin Center authors: Jetten M. S. M., Keltjens J. T. M., Maalcke W. J.

Rush, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Poulton, S.W.; Thamdrup, B.; Leigh Garside, A.; Acuña-Gonzalez, J.; Schouten, S.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Talbot, H.M. (2014). Anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria: A biological source of the bacteriohopanetetrol stereoisomer in marine sediments. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta140: 50-63.
Darwin Center authors: Jetten M. S. M., Rush D., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.

Rush, D., Jaeschke, A., Geenevasen, J.A.J., Tegelaar, E., Pureveen, J., Lewan, M.D., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S. (2014). Generation of unusual branched long chain alkanes from hydrous pyrolysis of anammox bacterial biomass.. Org. Geochem.76: 136-145.
Darwin Center authors: Rush D., Schouten S., Sinninghe Damsté J. S.